Battery Cell Comparison

The figures on this page have been acquired by a various number of sources under different conditions. Battery cell comparisons are tough and any actual comparison should use proven data for a particular model of battery.

Batteries perform differently due to the diverse processes used by various manufacturers. Even another model cell from the same manufacturer will perform differently depending on what they are optimized for.

You should also take into consideration the actual application in which the battery is being used. This can dramatically affect a battery's performance, so there are many factors to consider when choosing a battery cell for your product.

Comparison of Energy Density in Battery Cells

This battery comparison chart illustrates the volumetric and gravimetric energy densities based on bare battery cells.

Comparison of Energy Density in Battery Cells

Photo Credit: NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Energy Density Comparison of Size & Weight

The below battery comparison chart illustrates the volumetric and specific energy densities showing smaller sizes and lighter weight cells.

Battery Cell Energy Density

Specifications by Battery Chemistry

Specifications Lead Acid NiCd NiMH Li-ion
Cobalt Manganese Phosphate
Specific Energy Density (Wh/kg) 30-50 45-80 60-120 150-190 100-135 90-120
Internal Resistance (mΩ) <100
12V pack
6V pack
6V pack
per cell
per cell
Life Cycle (80% discharge) 200-300 1000 300-500 500-1,000 500-1,000 1,000-2,000
Fast-Charge Time 8-16h 1h typical 2-4h 2-4h 1h or less 1h or less
Overcharge Tolerance High Moderate Low Low. Cannot tolerate trickle charge
Self-Discharge/month (room temp) 5% 20% 30% <10%
Cell Voltage (nominal) 2V 1.2V 1.2V 3.6V 3.8V 3.3V
Charge Cutoff Voltage (V/cell) 2.40
Float 2.25
Full charge detection
by voltage signature
4.20 3.60
Discharge Cutoff Voltage (V/cell, 1C) 1.75 1.00 2.50-3.00 2.80
Peak Load Current
Best Result
Charge Temperature -20 to 50°C
-4 to 122°F
0 to 45°C
32 to 113°F
0 to 45°C
32 to 113°F
Discharge Temperature -20 to 50°C
-4 to 122°F
-20 to 65°C
-4 to 149°F
-20 to 60°C
-4 to 140°F
Maintenance Requirement 3-6 Months
(topping charge)
30-60 days
60-90 days
Not required
Safety Requirements Thermally stable Thermally stable, fuse protection common Protection circuit mandatory
In Use Since Late 1800s 1950 1990 1991 1996 1999
Toxicity Very High Very High Low Low
America's Oldest, A History of Innovation.  Learn More →
Our History

As the oldest production Printed Circuit Board Company in North America, perhaps in the world, the 60-year plus story of Epec is connected to the development of the PCB and the electronics industry.

See our history timeline →

  • Epec Founded in 1952
  • IPC Founded in 1957
  • Epec Builds PCB for Apollo 11